State Overview

Indicator Definition Source Sector
Adult literacy rate, population 15+ years (%) Percentage of the population age 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. This indicator is calculated by dividing the number of literates aged 15 years and over by the corresponding age group population and multiplying the result by 100. Education
Youth literacy rate, population 15-24 years (%) Number of people age 15 to 24 years who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on their everyday life, divided by the population in that age group. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. Divide the number of people aged 15 to 24 years who are literate by the total population in the same age group and multiply the result by 100. Education
Literacy rate, population 25-64 years (%) Percentage of the population between age 25 and age 64 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. This indicator is calculated by dividing the number of literates aged 25-64 years by the corresponding age group population and multiplying the result by 100. Education
Elderly literacy rate, population 65+ years (%) Percentage of the population age 65 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. This indicator is calculated by dividing the number of literates aged 65 years and over by the corresponding age group population and multiplying the result by 100. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, pre-primary (%) Total enrollment in pre-primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official pre-primary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, primary (%) Total enrollment in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, lower secondary (%) Total enrollment in lower secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official lower secondary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, secondary (%) Total enrollment in secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official secondary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, upper secondary (%) Total enrollment in upper secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official upper secondary education age. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, post-secondary non-tertiary (%) Total enrollment in post-secondary non-tertiary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official post-secondary non-tertiary education age. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, tertiary (%) Total enrollment in tertiary education (ISCED 5 to 8), regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of the five-year age group following on from secondary school leaving. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, primary and lower secondary (%) Total enrollment in primary and lower secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary and lower secondary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, primary and secondary (%) Total enrollment in primary and secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official primary and secondary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, primary to tertiary (%) Total enrollment in primary, secondary and tertiary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of primary school age, secondary school age, and the five-year age group following on from secondary school leaving. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Net enrolment rate, pre-primary (%) Total number of students in the theoretical age group for pre-primary education enrolled in that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. Divide the number of students enrolled who are of the official age group for pre-primary education by the population for the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NER at each level of education should be based on enrolment of the relevant age group in all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Net enrolment rate, primary (%) Total number of students in the theoretical age group for primary education enrolled in that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. Divide the number of students enrolled who are of the official age group for primary education by the population for the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NER at each level of education should be based on enrolment of the relevant age group in all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. A high NER denotes a high degree of coverage for the official school-age population. The theoretical maximum value is 100%. Increasing trends can be considered as reflecting improving coverage at the specified level of education. When the NER is compared with the GER, the difference between the two highlights the incidence of under-aged and over-aged enrolment. If the NER is below 100%, then the complement, i.e. the difference with 100%, provides a measure of the proportion of children not enrolled at the specified level of education. However, since some of these children/youth could be enrolled at other levels of education, this difference should in no way be considered as indicating the percentage of students not enrolled. To measure universal primary education, for example, adjusted primary NER is calculated on the basis of the percentage of children in the official primary school age range who are enrolled in either primary or secondary education. A more precise complementary indicator is the Age-specific enrolment ratio (ASER) which shows the participation in education of the population of each particular age, regardless of the level of education. Education
Net enrolment rate, lower secondary (%) Total number of students in the theoretical age group for lower secondary education enrolled in that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. Divide the number of students enrolled who are of the official age group for lower secondary education by the population for the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NER at each level of education should be based on enrolment of the relevant age group in all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Net enrolment rate, secondary (%) Total number of students in the theoretical age group for secondary education enrolled in that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. Divide the number of students enrolled who are of the official age group for secondary education by the population for the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NER at each level of education should be based on enrolment of the relevant age group in all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Net enrolment rate, upper secondary (%) Total number of students in the theoretical age group for upper secondary education enrolled in that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. Divide the number of students enrolled who are of the official age group for upper secondary education by the population for the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NER at each level of education should be based on enrolment of the relevant age group in all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Total net enrolment rate, primary (%) Total number of students of the official age group for primary education who are enrolled in any level of education, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. Divide the total number of students in the official school age range for primary education who are enrolled in any level of education by the population of the same age group and multiply the result by 100. The difference between the total NER and the adjusted NER provides a measure of the proportion of children in the official relevant school age group who are enrolled in levels of education below the one intended for their age. The difference between the total NER and the adjusted NER for primary education is due to enrolment in pre-primary education. The total NER should be based on total enrolment of the official relevant school age group in any level of education for all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Total net enrolment rate, lower secondary (%) Total number of students of the official age group for lower secondary education who are enrolled in any level of education, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. Divide the total number of students in the official school age range for lower secondary education who are enrolled in any level of education by the population of the same age group and multiply the result by 100. The difference between the total NER and the adjusted NER provides a measure of the proportion of children in the official relevant school age group who are enrolled in levels of education below the one intended for their age. The difference between the total NER and the adjusted NER for lower secondary education is due to enrolment in pre-primary or primary education. The total NER should be based on total enrolment of the official relevant school age group in any level of education for all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who are enrolled at primary or secondary education, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. Divide the total number of students in the official primary school age range who are enrolled in primary or secondary education by the population of the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NERA should be based on total enrolment of the official primary school participation age group in primary and secondary education for all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes (pre-primary education must be excluded). NERA gives more precise measure of the participation of the official primary school age population to the education system (excluding pre-primary education). It reflects the actual level of achievement of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) goal. In fact, while the Net enrolment rate (NER) shows the coverage of pupils in the official primary school age group in the primary education level only, the NERA extends the measure to those of the official primary school age range who have reached secondary education because they might access primary education earlier than the official entrance or they might skip some grades due to their performance. Increasing NERA might mirror improving participation of children in the official primary school age, the decrease of the target population or both. A value of 100% indicates theoretically that the country has accomplished the UPE goal. However, this condition is not sufficient for UPE due to, for example, a high repetition rate, which might lead pupils to dropout after primary school age without completing primary education. The difference between NERA and NER provides a measure of the proportion of children in the official primary age group who are enrolled in secondary education. Education
Adjusted net enrolment rate, lower secondary (%) Total number of students of the official lower secondary school age group who are enrolled in lower secondary education or higher, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. Divide the total number of students in the official lower secondary school age range who are enrolled in lower secondary education or higher by the population of the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NERA should be based on total enrolment of the official school participation age group for all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Adjusted net enrolment rate, upper secondary (%) Total number of students of the official upper secondary school age group who are enrolled in upper secondary education or higher, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. Divide the total number of students in the official upper secondary school age range who are enrolled in upper secondary education or higher by the population of the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NERA should be based on total enrolment of the official school participation age group for all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Gross intake ratio to Grade 1 of primary education (%) Total number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school-entrance age. A high GIR indicates a high degree of access to primary education. As this calculation includes all new entrants in Grade 1 (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100% due to over-aged and under-aged children entering primary school for the first time. Education
Gross intake ratio to Grade 1 of lower secondary general education (%) Total number of new entrants in the first grade of lower secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the official lower secondary school entrance age. A high GIR indicates a high degree of access to lower secondary education. As this calculation includes all new entrants in Grade 1 (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100% due to over-aged and under-aged children entering lower secondary school for the first time. Education
Adjusted net intake rate to Grade 1 of primary education (%) Total enrolment in primary education of the official primary school entrance age, as a percentage of the population of the same age in a given school year. It is the equivalent of the age-specific enrolment rate of the official primary entrance age. Divide the number of students in the official primary school entrance age who are enrolled in primary education, regardless of the year of entrance, grade or repetition, by the population of the same age, and multiply the result by 100. Adjusted NIR should be based on total enrolment of all children of the official primary school entrance age in all types of schools that provide organized educational programmes, including public and private institutions. It must be ensured that the enrolment data cover pupils who enter primary school earlier and might repeat the first grade or be at higher grades. While the Net intake rate (NIR) measures timely access to primary school for the official entrance age, the NIRA captures actual access to primary school for the total population of the official entrance age. It reflects efforts made by governments to achieve universal entrance to primary education of the eligible population of the official primary school entrance age. Adjusted NIR gives the proportion of children of the official primary school entrance age that are enrolled in primary education level but not necessary for the first time or in the first grade. Education
Out-of-school children of primary school age in pre-primary education (number) Children in the official primary school age range who are enrolled in pre-primary education. Education
Out-of-school children of primary school age (number) Children in the official primary school age range who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools. Education
Out-of-school adolescents of lower secondary school age (number) Total number of lower secondary school age adolescents who are not enrolled in lower secondary education. Education
Out-of-school youth of upper secondary school age (number) Total number of upper secondary school age youth who are not enrolled in upper secondary education. Education
Rate of out-of-school children of primary school age in pre-primary education (%) Number of children of official primary school age who are enrolled in pre-primary education, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary school age. Education
Rate of out-of-school children of primary school age (%) Number of children of official primary school age who are not enrolled in primary or secondary school, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary school age. Children enrolled in pre-primary education are excluded and considered out of school. Education
Rate of out-of-school adolescents of lower secondary school age (%) Number of adolescents of official lower secondary school age who are not enrolled in lower secondary school expressed as a percentage of the population of official lower secondary school age. Education
Rate of out-of-school youth of upper secondary school age (%) Number of youth of official upper secondary school age who are not enrolled in upper secondary school expressed as a percentage of the population of official upper secondary school age. Education
Over-age enrolment ratio in primary education (%) Percentage of the primary school age population that is over the official primary school age. Education
Under-age enrolment ratio in primary education (%) Percentage of the primary school age population that is under the official primary school age. Education
Under-age enrolment ratio in secondary education (%) Percentage of the secondary school age population that is under the official secondary school age. Education
Primary completion rate (%) Total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as percentage of the total population of the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. This indicator is also known as "gross intake rate to the last grade of primary education." The ratio can exceed 100% due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. Education
Lower secondary completion rate (%) Total number of new entrants in the last grade of lower secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as percentage of the total population of the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of lower secondary. This indicator is also known as "Gross intake rate to the last grade of lower secondary general education." The ratio can exceed 100 percent due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter lower secondary school late/early and/or repeat grades. Data limitations preclude adjusting for students who drop out during the final year of lower secondary education. Thus this rate is a proxy that should be taken as an upper estimate of the actual lower secondary completion rate. Education
Survival rate to Grade 5 of primary education (%) Percentage of a cohort of students enrolled in the first grade of primary education in a given school year who are expected to reach grade 5, regardless of repetition. Divide the total number of students belonging to a school-cohort who reached each successive grade of primary education by the number of students in the school-cohort i.e. those originally enrolled in the first grade of primary education, and multiply the result by 100. The survival rate is calculated on the basis of the reconstructed cohort method, which uses data on enrolment and repeaters for two consecutive years. Education
Effective transition rate from primary to lower secondary general education (%) Number of students admitted to the first grade of a higher level of education in a given year, expressed as a percentage of the number of students enrolled in the final grade of the lower level of education in the previous year. Divide the number of new entrants in the first grade of the specified higher cycle or level of education by the number of pupils who were enrolled in the final grade of the preceding cycle or level of education in the previous school year, and multiply by 100. High transition rates indicate a high level of access or transition from one level of education to the next. They also reflect the intake capacity of the next level of education. Inversely, low transition rates can signal problems in the bridging between two cycles or levels of education, due to either deficiencies in the examination system, or inadequate admission capacity in the higher cycle or level of education, or both. This indicator can be distorted by incorrect distinction between new entrants and repeaters, especially in the first grade of the specified higher level of education. Students who interrupted their studies for one or more years after having completed the lower level of education, together with the migrant students, could also affect the quality of this indicator. Education
Percentage of repeaters in a Grade (%) Total number of pupils in the specified grade who are enrolled in the same grade as in a previous year, expressed as a percentage of the total enrollment in the specified grade. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils repeating a given grade in a given school year by the number of pupils enrolled in the same grade in the same school year and multiplying by 100. The definition of repeaters should be unambiguously applied to include even pupils repeating more than once in the same grade and those who repeat the same grade while transferring from one school to another. Students who were not studying in the same grade in the previous year should be excluded. Education
Repeaters in a specified grade of education (number) Number of pupils in the specified grade who are enrolled in the same grade for a second (or further) year. Education
Repetition rate in a specified grade of education (%) Number of repeaters in a given grade in a given school year, expressed as a percentage of enrolment in that grade the previous school year. Divide the number of repeaters in a given grade in school year t+1 by the number of pupils from the same cohort enrolled in the same grade in the previous school year t. Education
Drop-out rate (%) Proportion of pupils from a cohort enrolled in a given grade at a given school year who are no longer enrolled in the following school year. Dropout rate by grade is calculated by subtracting the sum of promotion rate and repetition rate from 100. Education
Cumulative drop-out rate to the last grade of primary education (%) Proportion of pupils from a cohort enrolled in a given grade at a given school year who are no longer enrolled in the following school year. Cumulative dropout rate in primary education is calculated by subtracting the survival rate from 100 at a given grade. Education
Cumulative drop-out rate to the last grade of lower secondary general education (%) Proportion of pupils from a cohort enrolled in a given grade at a given school year who are no longer enrolled in the following school year. Cumulative dropout rate in lower secondary general education is calculated by subtracting the survival rate from 100 at a given grade. Education
Early school leavers from primary education (number) Total number of students from a cohort enrolled in a given school year who are no longer enrolled in the following school year and did not complete the grade or level of education in which they were enrolled. Education
Pupil-teacher ratio (headcount basis) Average number of pupils per teacher at a given level of education, based on headcounts of both pupils and teachers. Divide the total number of pupils enrolled at the specified level of education by the number of teachers at the same level. In computing and interpreting this indicator, one should take into account the existence of part-time teaching, school-shifts, multi-grade classes and other practices that may affect the precision and meaningfulness of pupil-teacher ratios. When feasible, the number of part-time teachers is converted to ‘full-time equivalent’ teachers; a double-shift teacher is counted twice, etc. Teachers are defined as persons whose professional activity involves the transmitting of knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a formal curriculum programme to students enrolled in a formal educational institution. Education
Pupil/qualified teacher ratio (headcount basis) Average number of pupils per qualified teacher at a given level of education, based on headcounts of both pupils and teachers. Divide the total number of pupils enrolled at the specified level of education by the number of qualified teachers at the same level. A qualified teacher is one who has the minimum academic qualifications necessary to teach at a specific level of education in a given country. This is usually related to the subject(s) they teach. In computing and interpreting this indicator, one should take into account the existence of part-time teaching, school-shifts, multi-grade classes and other practices that may affect the precision and meaningfulness of pupil-teacher ratios. When feasible, the number of part-time teachers is converted to ‘full-time equivalent’ teachers; a double-shift teacher is counted twice, etc. Teachers are defined as persons whose professional activity involves the transmitting of knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a formal curriculum programme to students enrolled in a formal educational institution. Education
Pupil/trained teacher ratio (headcount basis) Average number of pupils per trained teacher at a given level of education, based on headcounts of both pupils and teachers. Divide the total number of pupils enrolled at the specified level of education by the number of trained teachers at the same level. A trained teacher is defined as a teacher who has fulfilled at least the minimum organized teacher-training requirements (pre-service or in-service) to teach a specific level of education according to the relevant national policy or law. These requirements usually include pedagogical knowledge (broad principles and strategies of classroom management and organization that transcend the subject matter being taught - typically approaches, methods and techniques of teaching), and professional knowledge (knowledge of statutory instruments and other legal frameworks that govern the teaching profession). Some programmes may also cover content knowledge (knowledge of the curriculum and the subject matter to be taught and the use of relevant materials). In computing and interpreting this indicator, one should take into account the existence of part-time teaching, school-shifts, multi-grade classes and other practices that may affect the precision and meaningfulness of pupil-teacher ratios. When feasible, the number of part-time teachers is converted to ‘full-time equivalent’ teachers; a double-shift teacher is counted twice, etc. Teachers are defined as persons whose professional activity involves the transmitting of knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a formal curriculum programme to students enrolled in a formal educational institution. Education
Duration of compulsory education (years) Number of years that children are legally obliged to attend school. Education
Theoretical duration of pre-primary education (years) Number of grades (years) in pre-primary education. Education
Theoretical duration of primary education (years) Number of grades (years) in primary education. Education
Theoretical duration of lower secondary education (years) Number of grades (years) in lower secondary education. Education
Theoretical duration of secondary education (years) Number of grades (years) in secondary education (ISCED 2 and 3). Education
Theoretical duration of upper secondary education (years) Number of grades (years) in upper secondary education. Education
Theoretical duration of post-secondary non-tertiary education (years) Number of grades (years) in post-secondary education. Education
School life expectancy (years) Number of years a person of school entrance age can expect to spend within the specified level of education. For a child of a certain age a, the school life expectancy is calculated as the sum of the age specific enrolment rates for the levels of education specified. The part of the enrolment that is not distributed by age is divided by the school-age population for the level of education they are enrolled in, and multiplied by the duration of that level of education. The result is then added to the sum of the age-specific enrolment rates. A relatively high SLE indicates greater probability for children to spend more years in education and higher overall retention within the education system. It must be noted that the expected number of years does not necessarily coincide with the expected number of grades of education completed, because of repetition. Since school life expectancy is an average based on participation in different levels of education, the expected number of years of schooling may be pulled down by the magnitude of children who never go to school. Those children who are in school may benefit from many more years of education than the average. Education
UIS: Mean years of schooling of the population age 25+. Total Mean years of schooling (MYS) provides the average number of years of education (primary/ISCED 1 or higher) completed by a country’s adult population (25 years and older), excluding years spent repeating grades. For further information and specific calculation methods, visit the UNESCO Institute for Statistics website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, fourth quintile (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. Each poverty quintile represents one fifth of students with quintile 1 being the poorest 20 percent of students and quintile 5 being the richest 20 percent of students. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, middle quintile (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. Each poverty quintile represents one fifth of students with quintile 1 being the poorest 20 percent of students and quintile 5 being the richest 20 percent of students. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, poorest quintile (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. Each poverty quintile represents one fifth of students with quintile 1 being the poorest 20 percent of students and quintile 5 being the richest 20 percent of students. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, richest quintile (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. Each poverty quintile represents one fifth of students with quintile 1 being the poorest 20 percent of students and quintile 5 being the richest 20 percent of students. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, rural (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, second quintile (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. Each poverty quintile represents one fifth of students with quintile 1 being the poorest 20 percent of students and quintile 5 being the richest 20 percent of students. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, urban (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Net attendance rate, lower secondary (%) Total number of students in the theoretical age group for lower secondary education attending that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Net Enrolment Rate" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Total net attendance rate, lower secondary (%) Total number of students of the official lower secondary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Total net enrolment rate, lower secondary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
Gender parity index (GPI) Ratio of the value of an indicator for female to the value of same indicator for male. It is calculated by dividing the female value for the indicator by the male value for the indicator. A GPI equal to 1 indicates parity between females and males. In general, a value less than 1 indicates disparity in favor of males and a value greater than 1 indicates disparity in favor of females. Education
Inbound mobility rate (%) Number of students from abroad studying in a given country, as a percentage of the total tertiary enrollment in that country. Education
Outbound mobility ratio, all regions (%) Number of students from a given country studying abroad as a percentage of the total tertiary enrolment in that country. Education
Gross outbound enrolment ratio, all regions (%) Total number of mobile tertiary students coming from a country/region as a percentage of the population of tertiary student age in their home country. Education
Total inbound internationally mobile students (number) Total number of students who have crossed a national or territorial border for the purpose of education and are now enrolled in tertiary institutions outside their country of origin. Education
Total outbound internationally mobile tertiary students studying abroad, all countries (number) Students who have crossed a national or territorial border for the purpose of education and are now enrolled outside their country of origin. Education
Urban Constituents of urban area are Statutory Towns, Census Towns and Outgrowths. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Statutory Towns All places with a municipality, corporation, Cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc. so declared by a state law. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Census Towns Places which satisfy the following criteria: - a minimum population of 5000; at least 75 percent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and a density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Out growth Outgrowth should be viable unit such as village or part of a village contiguous to a statutory town and possess the urban features in terms of infrastructure and amenities such as pucca roads, electricity, taps, drainage system, education institutions, post offices, medical facilities, banks, etc. Example: University Campuses, Railway Colony, Port Area etc., that they may come up near a city or statutory towns outside its statutory limits but within the revenue limit of a village or villages contiguous to the town or city. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Urban Agglomeration It is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths or two or more physically contiguous towns together and any adjoining urban outgrowths of such towns. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Slum Slum is a residential area characterized by lack of durable housing, insufficient living area, lack of access to clean water, inadequate sanitation and insecure tenure. For above all reasons, it is considered to be unfit for human habitation. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Notified Slums All notified areas in a town or city notified as ‘Slum’ by State, Union territories Administration or Local Government under any Act including a ‘Slum Act’ may be considered as Notified slums. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Recognized Slums All areas recognized as ‘slum’ by State, Union Territories Administration or Local Government, Housing and Slum Boards, which may have not have been formally notified as slum under any act may be considered as Recognized Slums. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Identified Slums A compact area of at least 300 population or about 60-70 households of poorly built congested tenements, in unhygienic environment usually with inadequate infrastructure and lacking in proper sanitary and drinking water facilities. Such areas should be identified personally by the Charge Officer and also inspected by an officer nominated by Directorate of Census Operations. This fact must be duly recorded in the charge register. Such areas may be considered as Identified Slums. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Urban Local Bodies Local bodies are institutions of the local self-governance, which look after the administration of an area or small community such as villages, towns, or cities. The Local bodies in India are broadly classified into two categories. The local bodies constituted for local planning, development and administration in the rural areas are referred as Rural Local Bodies (Panchayats) and the local bodies, which are constituted for local planning, development and administration in the urban areas are referred as Urban Local Bodies (Municipalities). Ministry of statistics and Program Implementation (MOSPI) Urban Dev
Municipality An institution of self-government constituted under article 243 Q of the Constitution of India Part IX – A, Constitution of India, Ministry of Law & Justice, Govt. of India Urban Dev
Smart City A City that provides core (Public & Private) infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions. Smart City Mission, Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India Urban Dev
Sustainable Development Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Our Common Future, United Nations Urban Dev
Pedestrianization Pedestrianization is defined as the creation or conversion of different public spaces exclusively for pedestrian use. These are the zones in town or city reserved for pedestrians only. In such zones, all the vehicles are prohibited and are instituted by communities who feel that it is desirable to have pedestrian only areas. Converting a street or an area to pedestrian only use is called as pedestrianization. DULT, Karnataka Urban Dev
Aquifer An underground formation of permeable material containing water. Water
Ayacut The area served by an irrigation project such as a canal, dam or a tank. Water
Culturable Command Area (CCA) The area which can be irrigated from a scheme and is fit for cultivation. Water
Delivery Points (water) Public Taps / standposts. These are the water outlets which are provided by a Piped water supply system. Water
Drip/Trickle Irrigation It comprises the application of water in drops close to the plant. The entire space between the plants is not watered. Water
Drinking water near the premises The drinking water source available will be considered 'Near the premises', only if the available source is within a range of 100 metres from the premises in Urban areas and within a distance of 500 metres in the case of Rural areas. Water
Drinking water away from premises If the available drinking water source for the household living in urban area is 100 metres or more from the premises, the source is considered away from the premises. For the households living in rural areas, the drinking water source will be considered 'Away’ if it is located at a distance of 500 metres or more from the premises. Water
FC (Fully covered habitation; water) Those habitations, in which the average supply of drinking water is equal to or more than 55 LPCD, are called “fully covered” habitations. Water
Gross Irrigated Area The gross irrigated area is the total irrigated area under various crops during the whole agricultural year, counting the area irrigated under more than one crop during the same year as many times as the number of crops grown. Inter-cultured or mixed crops are treated as one crop. Water
Habitation It is a term used to define a group of families living in proximity to each other, within a village. It could have either heterogeneous or homogenous demographic pattern. There can be more than one habitation in a village but not vice versa. Water
Irrigation Potential Created The irrigation potential created by a project at a given time during or after its construction is the aggregate gross area that can be irrigated annually by the quantity of water that could be made available by all connected and completed works upto the end of the water courses or the last point in the water delivery system upto which the Government is responsible for construction. Water
Irrigation Potential Utilised The gross area actually irrigated during reference year out of the gross proposed area to be irrigated by the scheme during the year. Water
LPCD Litres per capita daily (water) Water
Net Irrigated Area The net irrigated area is the area irrigated during the year counting the area only once, even if two or more crops are irrigated in different seasons on the same piece of land. Water
NC (Not covered habitation; water) Not Covered. Those habitations, in which the average supply of drinking water is less than 10 LPCD, are called “Not covered” habitations. Water
Norms of coverage of habitaions under NRDWP 55 LPCD is the minimum or lifeline supply that has to be provided to a habitation for considering it as “Fully Covered” under the NRDWP. Water
Non-Revenue Water (NRW) or Unaccounted for Water (UFW) It is the difference between the volume of water put into a water distribution system and the volume that is billed to customers. In other words, it is the water that has been produced and is “lost” before it reaches the customer. NRW or UFW comprises three components as follows: 1)Physical (or real) losses comprise leakage from all parts of the system and overflows at the utility’s reservoirs. They are caused by poor operations and maintenance, the lack of active leakage control, and poor quality of underground assets; 2)Commercial (or apparent) losses are caused by customer meter under registration, data handling errors, and theft of water in various forms; 3)Unbilled authorized consumption includes water used by the utility for operational purposes, water used for firefighting, and water provided for free to certain consumer groups. Water
NRDWP National Rural Drinking Water Programme. This programme was launched in April 2009 by the then Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation presently Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, for assisting states in providing drinking water to the rural population of India. This programme has incorporated paradigmatic changes in its previous version called the Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme, by emphasizing on water supply systems which are planned and managed by the community at the village level, for ensuring sustainable drinking water availability, convenient delivery systems and achieving water security at the household level. Water
NSS No Safe Source - Habitation having a water source but is affected with quality problems such as excess salinity, iron, fluoride, arsenic or other toxic elements or biologically contaminated is considered a No Safe Source habitation. Hence, in case of quality affected habitations, even if they are fully covered as per the earlier norms they would be considered as NSS habitations if they do not have safe water supply at least for the purpose of drinking and cooking.  Water
O & M Operation and Maintenance. Water
PC (Partially covered; water) Those habitations in which the average supply of drinking water is less than 55 LPCD and equal to or more than 10 LPCD, are called “partially covered” habitations. Water
PWS Piped Water Supply systems. Such water supply systems provide water to various points away from the source of water through a pumping or gravity system and connections through pipelines. Water
QA Habitation Quality Affected Habitations – These are the habitations where water samples tested in laboratories have indicated levels of chemical contamination (limited to Arsenic, Fluoride, Iron, Nitrate and Salinity) higher than the permissible limits set by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Special focus is laid on monitoring of coverage status of such habitations under NRDWP. Water
Sanitary Survey Effective drinking water quality control involves two equally important activities: sanitary survey of drinking water sources and sampling and analysis of water. A sanitary survey is carried out by a team of trained experts including a surveillance co-ordinator, panchayat pradhan and community representative. The survey questionnaire consists of a set of question related to the maintenance of the area around a source of water like the platform around a handpump, drainage channel, fencing around the installation, etc. and the presence of any source of pollution nearby, like stagnant water, pit latrine, dumping of animal excreta etc. Based on the answers the risk factor is calculated and the necessary remedial measures taken. Water
Slipped back habitation A habitation having status “Fully Covered” at one point of time but which is “Partially Covered” or “Quality Affected” presently, is called a Slipped back habitation. Water
Spot Sources Those water supply systems where the source of water and the supply/delivery system are both at the same point location, are called spot sources. Eg: Hand humps, wells, ponds etc. Water
Sprinkler Irrigation The method of applying water over the land by spraying it under pressure. This is often done by rotating sprinkler heads with one or more nozzles or by using perforated pipes. Water
Tap water from treated source Tap Water from treated source refers to a source of drinking water which is provided to individual households through pipes within the premises or to a group of households through common taps (public taps / community water points) by the Govt. departments, local bodies, panchayats, public or private estate agencies, etc. after treatment. Water
Tap water from untreated source If a household is drawing drinking water through pipes either directly from a well or bore well or after pumping the well or tube well water to an overhead water tank, or the water is supplied through pipes to individual household within the premises or to a group of households through common taps by Residents Welfare Association or any other agency without treatment, such a source should be treated as Tap water from untreated source. Water
UC (Uncovered habitation; water) Such habitations are those which have never been provided with drinking water supply by the government, under the NRDWP (or former Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme). Water
VWSC Village Water and Sanitation Committees. Water
Water Productivity Water Productivity is expressed as a ratio of output to input. Therefore, Water Productivity is a measure of output of a given system in relation to the water it consumes. Water
Water Use Efficiency Water Use Efficiency (WUE) refers to the amount of water spent or consumed per unit of water delivered. It thus implies performance of the water from the point water is delivered for a specific use till it is consumed. An efficient water system implies effective transfer of water from the source to the field with minimum possible loss. Water
WQMS Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance. Under the National Rural Drinking Water Programme the issue of Water Quality Monitoring & Surveillance has been given due emphasis. The monitoring and surveillance results from the habitations are also to be put on the database of the Department and monitored to ensure drinking water security at the household level. Water
Gross Value Added or Gross (District/Mandal) Domestic Product (GDP) “Gross domestic product (GDP) is the standard measure of the value of the goods and services produced by a country [or district/mandal] during a period.” OECD Factbook 2008 Public Finance
Gross Fixed Capital Formation “Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) reflects the acquisition, less disposal, of fixed assets, i.e. products which are expected to be used in production for several years. Acquisitions include both purchases of assets (new or second-hand) and the construction of assets by producers for their own use. Disposals include sales of assets for scrap as well as sales of used assets in a working condition to other producers” OECD Factbook 2008 Public Finance
Gross National Income (GNI) “GNI is defined as GDP plus net receipts from abroad of wages and salaries and of property income” OECD Factbook 2008 Public Finance
Inflation “Inflation measures how much more expensive a set of goods and services has become over a certain period, usually a year. It is the rate of increase in prices over a given period of time” OECD Factbook 2008 Public Finance
Fiscal Deficit “The net lending of the general government is equal to the difference between total revenue and total expenditure. A negative figure indicates a deficit.” OECD Factbook 2011-12 Public Finance
Fiscal Deficit as a % of GSDP (contd. Fiscal Deficit) “…It is an important indicator for assessing fiscal performance and more generally imbalances in the economy” OECD Factbook 2011-12 Public Finance
Revenue Deficit “The main revenue of general government consists of taxes, social contributions, dividends and other property income. The main expenditure items consist of the compensation of civil servants, social benefits, interest on the public debt, subsidies and gross fixed capital formation. A negative figure indicates excess of expenditure over income and is a deficit.” OECD Factbook 2011-12 Public Finance
Primary deficit “The primary balance that is the balance before interest payments signals the capacity of governments to honour debt without the need for further indebtedness. A negative figure indicates a deficit.” [Simply, the primary deficit is defined as the difference between current government spending on goods and services and total current revenue from all types of taxes net of transfer payments. It is simply the fiscal deficit minus interest payments.] OECD Factbook 2011-15 Public Finance
Tax : GSDP “Total tax revenue as a percentage of GDP indicates the share of a country’s output that is collected by the government through taxes. It can thus be regarded as one measure of the degree to which the government controls the economy’s resources. OECD Factbook 2008 Public Finance
Debt : GSDP Gross financial liabilities as a percentage of GDP is the most commonly used government debt ratio. OECD Factbook 2008 Public Finance
Own Revenue / Revenue Expenditure Indicates the states’ ability to finance its expenditures through collecting its own tax revenues. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Development expenditure / Aggregate disbursement Indicates amount of productive expenditure designed to directly promote economic growth and social development as a proportion of the total amount spent by the state. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Non Development expenditure / Aggregate disbursement Indicates the amount of unproductive (or non-development) expenditure as a proportion of the total amount spent by the state. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Interest payment / Revenue expenditure Indicates amount spent on interest payments as a proportion of total revenue expenditures of the state. A lower value indicates the state has the fiscal space to spend on priority areas. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Interest payment / Revenue receipts Indicates amount spent on interest payments out of the state’s revenue receipts. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Committed expenditure / Revenue expenditure Indicates the amount spent on interest payments, salaries and wages, pensions and subsidies out of total revenue spend of the state. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Pension / Revenue expenditure Indicates the amount spent on pensions alone, out of total revenue spend of the state. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Capital expenditure / Total expenditure Indicates investment in capital stock by the state with the view to spur economic activity in the state. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Gross Transfers/Aggregate Disbursements Indicates the amount transferred as developmental funds to be spent on (social) development activities as a proportion of total spending. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
AIDS / HIV prevalence rate The AIDS / HIV prevalence rate in selected populations refers to the percentage of people tested in each group who were found to be infected with HIV. UNAIDS, Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS with Unicef, UNDP, UNFPA, UNDCP, UNESCO, WHO, World Bank. Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Geneva, biennial. AIDS epidemic update. Health
Chronic health conditions Chronic health conditions are those where the onset is usually insidious, with a gradual progression of symptoms or with problems of a more permanent nature resulting as sequels to a series of acute conditions. Daily activities may or may not be restricted during any given period although there is usually a more general series of limitations of activities. Handbook of Household Surveys, Revised Edition, Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 31, United Nations, New York, 1984, para. 14.45. Health
The dependent population ratio The dependent population ratio is the ratio of the population defined as dependent (the population aged 0-19 and 65 and over) divided by the population 20-64, multiplied by 100. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Disability A disability reflects any limitation or lack of ability that a person experiences in performing an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a person, in other words, a limitation in learning, speaking, walking or some other activity (individual dimension). Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses, Revision 1, United Nations, New York, 1998, para. 2.260. Health
Disability-free life expectancy Disability-free life expectancy is the average number of years an individual is expected to live free of disability if current patterns of mortality and disability continue to apply. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
General government (excluding social security) expenditure on health General government (excluding social security) expenditure on health refers to expenditures incurred by central, state/regional and local government authorities, excluding social security schemes. Included are non-market, non-profit institutions that are controlled and mainly financed by government units. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Health The Constitution of the World Health Organisation states in its preamble: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Handbook of Household Surveys, Revised Edition, Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 31, United Nations, New York, 1984, para. 14.40. Health
Fatal occupational injury A Fatal occupational injury is an occupational injury leading to death within one year of the day of the occupational accident. International Labour Organization (ILO) Resolutions Concerning statistics of occupational injuries (resulting from occupational accidents), adopted by the Sixteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians (October 1998), page 5. Health
Immunization Rendering a person or animal immune to certain infections by the process of injecting either antigen or a serum containing specific antibodies. S.W.A. Gunn. Multilingual Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and International Relief, English, Français, Español, Arabic. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990. Health
Immunisation rate for children The immunisation rate for children refers to the percentage of children reaching their first birthday who have been fully immunised against Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis (DTP). OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Injuries in road traffic accidents Injuries in road traffic accidents refers to the number of people injured in road traffic accidents per million population. OECD Health Data 2007: Statistics and Indicators for 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2007, Data sources, definitions and methods. Health
In-patient care In-patient care refers to care for a patient who is formally admitted (or ‘hospitalised’) to an institution for treatment and/or care and stays for a minimum of one night in the hospital or other institution providing in-patient care. In-patient care is delivered in hospitals, other nursing homes and residential care facilities or in establishments which are classified according to their focus of care under the ambulatory care industry but perform in-patient care as a secondary activity. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Low birth weight Low birth weight is the number of live births weighing less than 2500 grams as a percentage of total live births. OECD Health Data 2007: Statistics and Indicators for 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2007, Data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Malaria A parasitic infection characterized by cycles of chills, fever, sweating, anaemia, enlarged spleen and a chronic relapsing course. Four types of parasites affect man, through infection by the anopheles mosquito. Most malarial areas are in the tropics. Disasters, like floods and refugee encampments, are conducive to the propagation of the disease. S.W.A. Gunn. Multilingual Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and International Relief, English, Français, Español, Arabic. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990. (p. 49). Health
Maternal Death The death of woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental causes. World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva, 1992. (definitions 4.4 and 4.5). Health
Measles A highly contagious acute disease of childhood, characterized by a spreading skin rash, fever, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, eruption of the buccal mucosa (Koplik's spots) and prostration. Overcrowding and disaster conditions are conducive to outbreaks, with high mortality, especially among the malnourished. S.W.A. Gunn. Multilingual Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and International Relief, English, Français, Español, Arabic. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990. Health
Obesity Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or more. The BMI is a single number that evaluates an individual's weight status in relation to height (weight/height2), with weight in kilograms and height in metres). OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Occupational accident An Occupational accident is an unexpected and unplanned occurrence, including acts of violence, arising out of or in connection with work which results in one or more workers incurring a personal injury, disease or death. As occupational accidents are to be considered travel, transport or road traffic accidents in which workers are injured and which arise out of or in the course of work, i.e. while engaged in an economic activity, or at work, or carrying on the business of the employer. International Labour Organization (ILO) Resolutions Concerning statistics of occupational injuries (resulting from occupational accidents), adopted by the Sixteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians (October 1998), page 2. Health
Occupational health care Occupational health care comprises a wide variety of health services such as surveillance of employee health (routine medical check-ups) and therapeutic care (including emergency health care services) on or off-business premises (including government and non-profit institutions serving households). This excludes, however, remuneration- in-kind of health services and goods that constitute household actual final consumption rather than intermediate consumption of business. (ICHA function HC.6.9). A System of Health Accounts, OECD, 2000, chapter 9, page 123. Health
Household out-of-pocket expenditure on health Household out-of-pocket expenditure on health comprise cost-sharing, self-medication and other expenditure paid directly by private households, irrespective of whether the contact with the health care system was established on referral or on the patient’s own initiative. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Over-the-counter medicines (OTC medicines) Over-the-counter medicines (OTC medicines) are classified as private households' pharmaceutical expenditure of non-prescription medicines. Note: This item corresponds to HC.5.1.2 in the ICHA-HC functional classification. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Perceived health status Perceived health status refers to the percentage of the population, aged 15 or more years who report their health to be 'good' or better. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Perinatal Mortality The ratio of deaths of children within one week of birth (early neonatal deaths) plus foetal deaths of minimum gestation period 28 weeks or minimum foetal weight of 1000g, expressed per 1,000 births. OECD Health Data 2007: Statistics and Indicators for 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2007, Data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Person with a disability A person with a disability is a person who is limited in the kind or amount of activities that he or she can do because of on-going difficulties due to a long-term physical condition, mental condition or health problem. Short-term disabilities due to temporary conditions such as broken legs and illnesses are excluded. Only disabilities lasting for more than six months should be included. Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses, Revision 1, United Nations, New York, 1998, para. 2.262. Health
Potential years of life lost (PYLL Potential years of life lost (PYLL) is a summary measure of premature mortality which provides an explicit way of weighting deaths occurring at younger ages, which are, a priori, preventable. The calculation for PYLL involve adding up deaths occurring at each age and multiplying this with the number of remaining years to live until a selected age limit. The limit of 70 years has been chosen for the calculations in OECD Health Data. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Prevalence (of illness): The number of illnesses, accidents or sick persons in a given population and time, without distinction between new and old cases. S.W.A. Gunn. Multilingual Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and International Relief, English, Français, Español, Arabic. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990. (p. 61). Health
Private expenditure on prevention and public health Private expenditure on prevention and public health refers to privately funded part of expenditure on prevention and public health. It includes privately funded occupational health care; prevention and public health services provided by charities, other non-Governmental organisations, voluntary organisations. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Public expenditure on health Public expenditure on health refers to expenditure on health care incurred by public funds. Public funds are state, regional and local Government bodies and social security schemes. Public capital formation on health includes publicly-financed investment in health facilities plus capital transfers to the private sector for hospital construction and equipment. Public funds correspond to HF.1 in the ICHA-HF classification of health care financing. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Social health insurance scheme A social health insurance scheme is one where the policy-holder is obliged or encouraged to insure by the intervention of a third party. For example, government may oblige all employees to participate in a social security programme; employers may make it a condition of employment that employees participate in an insurance programme specified by the employer; an employer may encourage employees to join a programme by making contributions on behalf of the employee; or a trade union may arrange advantageous insurance cover available only to the members of the trade union. Contributions to social insurance programmes are usually paid on behalf of employees, though under certain conditions non-employed or self-employed persons may also be covered. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Total Health Employment Number of persons (head counts) and number of full-time equivalent (FTE) persons, employed (including self-employed) in health services, including 'contracted out' staff and excluding pharmaceutical and medical equipment manufacturing employees. OECD Health Data 2007: Statistics and Indicators for 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2007, Data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Tuberculosis Infections and contagious disease, with particular localization in the lungs, caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. BCG vaccination is important, but the disease is still endemic in many regions and is a real hazard in crowded unsanitary conditions following disaster. One of the six diseases in the WHO immunization programme. S.W.A. Gunn. Multilingual Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and International Relief, English, Français, Español, Arabic. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990. (p. 82). Health
Infant mortality rate (IMR) The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths under one year of age occurring among the live births in a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 live births occurring among the population of the given geographical area during the same year. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Causes of death Causes of death refers to all diseases, morbid conditions or injuries that either resulted in or contributed to death, and the circumstances of the accident or violence that produced any such injuries. Symptoms or modes of dying, such as heart failure or asthenia, are not considered to be causes of death for statistical purposes. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Crude death rate The crude death rate is the number of deaths occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Civil Register A civil register is an official loose-leaf file or a ledger book for each type of vital event where vital events and changes in the civil status occurring to the population in a well-defined area (e.g. a county, district, municipality, parish and so on) are legally registered, following established procedures. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Civil registration system The civil registration system refers to governmental machinery set up in the country, state, province or any other territorial subdivision of the country for the purpose of legal recording of vital events related to the civil status of the population on a continuous basis, as provided by the laws and regulations of the country, state, province, etc. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Cohort A cohort is a group of persons who experience a certain event in a specified period of time. For example, the birth cohort of 1985 would be the people born in that year. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Crude birth rate The crude birth rate is the number of live births occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Early foetal death An early foetal death is the death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception of less than 20 completed weeks of gestation. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Economically active population Economically active population comprises all persons of either sex who furnish the supply of labour for the production of economic goods and services as defined by the United Nations System of National Accounts during a specified time-reference period. International Labour Organization (ILO) Resolutions Concerning Economically Active Population, Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment Adopted by the 13th International Conference of Labour Statisticians, October 1982, para. 5. Health
Total Fertitility Rate (TFR) to the number of children that would be born per woman, assuming no female mortality at child bearing ages and the age-specific fertility rates of a specified country and reference period. United Nations, 1958, Multilingual Demographic Dictionary, English Section. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Studies, No. 29, United Nations, New York, para . 634. Health
Life expectancy Life expectancy at birth and ages 40, 60, 65 and 80 is the average number of years that a person at that age can be expected to live, assuming that age-specific mortality levels remain constant. OECD Health Data 2007: Statistics and Indicators for 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2007, Data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) The maternal mortality rate refers to the number of deaths from puerperal causes occurring among the female population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 100, 000 live births occurring among the population of the given geographical area during the same year. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Neo-Natal Mortality Rate The neo-natal mortality rate is the number of deaths during the first 28 completed days of life occurring among the live births in a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 live births. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Death Death is the permanent disappearance of all evidence of life at any time after live birth has taken place (post natal cessation of vital functions without capability of resuscitation). This definition therefore excludes foetal death. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Acronym Expansion Sector
AMRUT Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation Urban Development
ANM Auxiliary Nurse Midwifery Health
APCRDA Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority Urban Development
APDISCOM Andhra Pradesh Distribution Company Infrastructure & Energy
APEDB Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board Urban Development
APEPDCL Andhra Pradesh Eastern Power Distribution Company limited Infrastructure & Energy
APERC Andhra Pradesh Electricity Regulatory Commission Urban Development
APGENCO Andhra Pradesh Generation Company Infrastructure & Energy
APHB Andhra Pradesh Housing Board Urban Development
APIIC Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation Urban Development
APPCB Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board Urban Development
APSHC Andhra Pradesh State Housing Corporation Limited Urban Development
APSPDCL Andhra Pradesh Southern Power Distribution Company limited Infrastructure & Energy
APSRTC Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation Urban Development
APTRANSCO Andhra Pradesh Transmission Company Infrastructure & Energy
APUFIDC AP Urban Finance and Infrastructure Development Corporation Urban Development
ASER Annual Status of Education Report Education
ASHA Accredited Social Health Activist Health
AT&C LOSS Aggregate technical and commercial loss Infrastructure & Energy
BCM Billion Cubic Meters Water
BERD Business Expenditure on Research and Development Emerging Technologies
CAA Constitutional Amendment Act Urban Development
CADA Command Area Development Authority Water
CAGR Compound Annual Growth Rate Public Finance
CBIC Chennai – Bangalore Industrial Corridor Industries and MSMEs
CBR Crude Birth Rate Health
CCA Culturable Command Area Water
CDMA Commissioner and Director of Municipal Administration Urban Development
CETP Common Effluent Treatment Plant Water
CGD City Gas Distribution Infrastructure & Energy
CPHEEO Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation Urban Development
Cusecs Cubic Feet per second Water
CWC Central Water Commission Water
DIET District Institutes of Education and Training Education
DISE District Information System for Education Education
DLHS District Level Household and Facility Survey Health
DPR Detailed Project Report Urban Development
DTCP Directorate of Town and Country Planning Urban Development
ECCE Early Childhood Care and Education Education
EGDI E Government Development Index Governance
EM Entrepreneur Memorandum Industries and MSMEs
EoDB Ease of doing business Industries and MSMEs
EPI E Participation Index Governance
e-Pragathi AP State Enterprise Architecture Governance
EWS Economically Weaker Section Urban Development
FC Fully Covered Habitations Water
FRBM Fiscal Responsibility & Budget Management Act Public Finance
FSRU Floating Storage & Regasification Unit Infrastructure & Energy
FY Financial Year Infrastructure & Energy
GER Gross Enrolment Ratio Education
GERD Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development Emerging Technologies
GoAP Government of Andhra Pradesh Water
GSDP Gross State Domestic Product Public Finance
GVA Gross Value Added Public Finance
GVMC Greater Vishakhapatnam Municipal Corporation Urban Development
GW Groundwater Water
Ha Hectares Water
HALE Health Adjusted Life Expectancy Health
HDI Human Development Index Health
HERD Hiher Education Expenditure on Research and Development Emerging Technologies
HIG Higher Income Group Urban Development
IC Industrial Corridor Industries and MSMEs
ICDS Integrated Child Development Scheme Education
ICTs Information and Communication Technologies Emerging Technologies
IMR Infant Mortality Rate Health
IOT Internet of Things Governance
JAM Jan Dhan Mobile Governance
JNNURM Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission Urban Development
KPI Key Performance Index Infrastructure & Energy
KWDT Krishna Water Dispute Tribunal Water
LABS Vision 2029 Transformation Labs on Education, Retail, Governance and Urban Development Governance
LIG Lower Income Group Urban Development
LPCD Litres per capita per day Water
MAUD Municipal Administration and Urban Development, GoAP Urban Development
MC Municipal Corporation Urban Development
MCM Million Cubic Meters Water
MIG Middle Income Group Urban Development
MIS Management Information System Water
MLD Million Litres per Day Water
MMR Maternal Mortality Ratio Health
MOOCs Massive Open Online Courses Emerging Technologies
MoUD Ministry of Urban Development, GoI Urban Development
MSME MSME- Micro, Small and Medium enterprises Industries and MSMEs
MSW Municipal Solid Waste Urban Development
MU Million Units Infrastructure & Energy
MVS Multi- Village Supply Water
MW Mega Watt Infrastructure & Energy
NAAC National Assessment and Accreditation Council Education
NCERT National Council for Education Research and Training Education
NER Net Enrolment Ratio Education
NHM National Health Mission Health
NI National Income Public Finance
NIC National Industry Classification Industries and MSMEs
NIMZ National Investment Manufacturing Zone Industries and MSMEs
NRDWP National Rural Drinking Water Program Water
NREDCAP New and Renewable Energy Development Corporation of Andhra Pradesh Infrastructure & Energy
NRW Non-Revenue Water Water
NSDP Net State Domestic Product Public Finance
O & M Operation & Maintenance Water
PC Partially Covered Habitations Water
PCI Per Capita Income Public Finance
PCPIR Petroleum, Chemicals, and Petrochemicals Investment Region Urban Development
PDS Public Distribution System Governance
PEMANDU Performance Management and Delivery Unit , Malaysia
PFA Power For All Infrastructure & Energy
PHC Primary Healthcare Centre Health
PHMED/PHED Public Health and Municipal Engineering Department Water
PPA Power Purchase Agreement Infrastructure & Energy
Ppm Parts per Million Water
PPP Public Private Partnership Infrastructure & Energy
PSD Public Service Delivery Governance
QA Quality Affected Water
RCAP Rapid Capacity Addition Program Infrastructure & Energy
RMSA Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan Education
RO Reverse Osmosis Water
RTA Road Transport Authority Urban Development
RWS Rural Water Supply Department Water
SAC Swachha Andhra Corporation Urban Development
SCERT State Council for Education Research and Training Education
SDGs Sustainable Development Goals Governance
SEB State Electricity Board Infrastructure & Energy
SERP Smart Energy Reforms Program Infrastructure & Energy
SEZ Special Economic Zone Industries and MSMEs
SIR Special Investment Region Industries and MSMEs
SLA Service Level Agreement Urban Development
SLNA State Level Nodal Agency Urban Development
SMAC Social Media, Mobile. Analytics & Cloud Governance
SPV Special Purpose Vehicle Industries and MSMEs
SRS Sample Registration System Health
STEM Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Emerging Technologies
STP Sewage Treatment Plant Urban Development
SVS Single Village Supply Water
SWM Solid Waste Management Urban Development
T&D Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure & Energy
TFR Total Fertility Rate Health
TMC Thousand Million Cubic Feet Water
TPD Tonnes per Day Urban Development
TUDA Tirupati Urban Development Authority Urban Development
UA Urban Authority Urban Development
UDA Urban Development Authority Urban Development
UFW Unaccounted for Water Water
ULB Urban Local Body Urban Development
UNDP United nations Development Programme Health
VCIC Vizag-Chennai Industrial Corridor Industries and MSMEs
WALAMTARI Water and Land Management Training and Research Institute Water
WHO World Health Organisation Health
WP Water Productivity Water
WtE Waste-to-Energy Urban Development
WTP Water Treatment Plant Water
WUAs Water Users Associations Water
WUE Water Use Efficiency Water

Definitions
Indicator Definition Source Sector
Adult literacy rate, population 15+ years (%) Percentage of the population age 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. This indicator is calculated by dividing the number of literates aged 15 years and over by the corresponding age group population and multiplying the result by 100. Education
Youth literacy rate, population 15-24 years (%) Number of people age 15 to 24 years who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on their everyday life, divided by the population in that age group. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. Divide the number of people aged 15 to 24 years who are literate by the total population in the same age group and multiply the result by 100. Education
Literacy rate, population 25-64 years (%) Percentage of the population between age 25 and age 64 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. This indicator is calculated by dividing the number of literates aged 25-64 years by the corresponding age group population and multiplying the result by 100. Education
Elderly literacy rate, population 65+ years (%) Percentage of the population age 65 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. This indicator is calculated by dividing the number of literates aged 65 years and over by the corresponding age group population and multiplying the result by 100. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, pre-primary (%) Total enrollment in pre-primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official pre-primary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, primary (%) Total enrollment in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, lower secondary (%) Total enrollment in lower secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official lower secondary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, secondary (%) Total enrollment in secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official secondary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, upper secondary (%) Total enrollment in upper secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official upper secondary education age. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, post-secondary non-tertiary (%) Total enrollment in post-secondary non-tertiary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official post-secondary non-tertiary education age. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, tertiary (%) Total enrollment in tertiary education (ISCED 5 to 8), regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of the five-year age group following on from secondary school leaving. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, primary and lower secondary (%) Total enrollment in primary and lower secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary and lower secondary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, primary and secondary (%) Total enrollment in primary and secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official primary and secondary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Gross enrolment ratio, primary to tertiary (%) Total enrollment in primary, secondary and tertiary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of primary school age, secondary school age, and the five-year age group following on from secondary school leaving. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Education
Net enrolment rate, pre-primary (%) Total number of students in the theoretical age group for pre-primary education enrolled in that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. Divide the number of students enrolled who are of the official age group for pre-primary education by the population for the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NER at each level of education should be based on enrolment of the relevant age group in all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Net enrolment rate, primary (%) Total number of students in the theoretical age group for primary education enrolled in that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. Divide the number of students enrolled who are of the official age group for primary education by the population for the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NER at each level of education should be based on enrolment of the relevant age group in all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. A high NER denotes a high degree of coverage for the official school-age population. The theoretical maximum value is 100%. Increasing trends can be considered as reflecting improving coverage at the specified level of education. When the NER is compared with the GER, the difference between the two highlights the incidence of under-aged and over-aged enrolment. If the NER is below 100%, then the complement, i.e. the difference with 100%, provides a measure of the proportion of children not enrolled at the specified level of education. However, since some of these children/youth could be enrolled at other levels of education, this difference should in no way be considered as indicating the percentage of students not enrolled. To measure universal primary education, for example, adjusted primary NER is calculated on the basis of the percentage of children in the official primary school age range who are enrolled in either primary or secondary education. A more precise complementary indicator is the Age-specific enrolment ratio (ASER) which shows the participation in education of the population of each particular age, regardless of the level of education. Education
Net enrolment rate, lower secondary (%) Total number of students in the theoretical age group for lower secondary education enrolled in that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. Divide the number of students enrolled who are of the official age group for lower secondary education by the population for the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NER at each level of education should be based on enrolment of the relevant age group in all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Net enrolment rate, secondary (%) Total number of students in the theoretical age group for secondary education enrolled in that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. Divide the number of students enrolled who are of the official age group for secondary education by the population for the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NER at each level of education should be based on enrolment of the relevant age group in all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Net enrolment rate, upper secondary (%) Total number of students in the theoretical age group for upper secondary education enrolled in that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. Divide the number of students enrolled who are of the official age group for upper secondary education by the population for the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NER at each level of education should be based on enrolment of the relevant age group in all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Total net enrolment rate, primary (%) Total number of students of the official age group for primary education who are enrolled in any level of education, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. Divide the total number of students in the official school age range for primary education who are enrolled in any level of education by the population of the same age group and multiply the result by 100. The difference between the total NER and the adjusted NER provides a measure of the proportion of children in the official relevant school age group who are enrolled in levels of education below the one intended for their age. The difference between the total NER and the adjusted NER for primary education is due to enrolment in pre-primary education. The total NER should be based on total enrolment of the official relevant school age group in any level of education for all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Total net enrolment rate, lower secondary (%) Total number of students of the official age group for lower secondary education who are enrolled in any level of education, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. Divide the total number of students in the official school age range for lower secondary education who are enrolled in any level of education by the population of the same age group and multiply the result by 100. The difference between the total NER and the adjusted NER provides a measure of the proportion of children in the official relevant school age group who are enrolled in levels of education below the one intended for their age. The difference between the total NER and the adjusted NER for lower secondary education is due to enrolment in pre-primary or primary education. The total NER should be based on total enrolment of the official relevant school age group in any level of education for all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who are enrolled at primary or secondary education, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. Divide the total number of students in the official primary school age range who are enrolled in primary or secondary education by the population of the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NERA should be based on total enrolment of the official primary school participation age group in primary and secondary education for all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes (pre-primary education must be excluded). NERA gives more precise measure of the participation of the official primary school age population to the education system (excluding pre-primary education). It reflects the actual level of achievement of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) goal. In fact, while the Net enrolment rate (NER) shows the coverage of pupils in the official primary school age group in the primary education level only, the NERA extends the measure to those of the official primary school age range who have reached secondary education because they might access primary education earlier than the official entrance or they might skip some grades due to their performance. Increasing NERA might mirror improving participation of children in the official primary school age, the decrease of the target population or both. A value of 100% indicates theoretically that the country has accomplished the UPE goal. However, this condition is not sufficient for UPE due to, for example, a high repetition rate, which might lead pupils to dropout after primary school age without completing primary education. The difference between NERA and NER provides a measure of the proportion of children in the official primary age group who are enrolled in secondary education. Education
Adjusted net enrolment rate, lower secondary (%) Total number of students of the official lower secondary school age group who are enrolled in lower secondary education or higher, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. Divide the total number of students in the official lower secondary school age range who are enrolled in lower secondary education or higher by the population of the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NERA should be based on total enrolment of the official school participation age group for all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Adjusted net enrolment rate, upper secondary (%) Total number of students of the official upper secondary school age group who are enrolled in upper secondary education or higher, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. Divide the total number of students in the official upper secondary school age range who are enrolled in upper secondary education or higher by the population of the same age group and multiply the result by 100. NERA should be based on total enrolment of the official school participation age group for all types of schools and education institutions, including public, private and all other institutions that provide organized educational programmes. Education
Gross intake ratio to Grade 1 of primary education (%) Total number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school-entrance age. A high GIR indicates a high degree of access to primary education. As this calculation includes all new entrants in Grade 1 (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100% due to over-aged and under-aged children entering primary school for the first time. Education
Gross intake ratio to Grade 1 of lower secondary general education (%) Total number of new entrants in the first grade of lower secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the official lower secondary school entrance age. A high GIR indicates a high degree of access to lower secondary education. As this calculation includes all new entrants in Grade 1 (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100% due to over-aged and under-aged children entering lower secondary school for the first time. Education
Adjusted net intake rate to Grade 1 of primary education (%) Total enrolment in primary education of the official primary school entrance age, as a percentage of the population of the same age in a given school year. It is the equivalent of the age-specific enrolment rate of the official primary entrance age. Divide the number of students in the official primary school entrance age who are enrolled in primary education, regardless of the year of entrance, grade or repetition, by the population of the same age, and multiply the result by 100. Adjusted NIR should be based on total enrolment of all children of the official primary school entrance age in all types of schools that provide organized educational programmes, including public and private institutions. It must be ensured that the enrolment data cover pupils who enter primary school earlier and might repeat the first grade or be at higher grades. While the Net intake rate (NIR) measures timely access to primary school for the official entrance age, the NIRA captures actual access to primary school for the total population of the official entrance age. It reflects efforts made by governments to achieve universal entrance to primary education of the eligible population of the official primary school entrance age. Adjusted NIR gives the proportion of children of the official primary school entrance age that are enrolled in primary education level but not necessary for the first time or in the first grade. Education
Out-of-school children of primary school age in pre-primary education (number) Children in the official primary school age range who are enrolled in pre-primary education. Education
Out-of-school children of primary school age (number) Children in the official primary school age range who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools. Education
Out-of-school adolescents of lower secondary school age (number) Total number of lower secondary school age adolescents who are not enrolled in lower secondary education. Education
Out-of-school youth of upper secondary school age (number) Total number of upper secondary school age youth who are not enrolled in upper secondary education. Education
Rate of out-of-school children of primary school age in pre-primary education (%) Number of children of official primary school age who are enrolled in pre-primary education, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary school age. Education
Rate of out-of-school children of primary school age (%) Number of children of official primary school age who are not enrolled in primary or secondary school, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary school age. Children enrolled in pre-primary education are excluded and considered out of school. Education
Rate of out-of-school adolescents of lower secondary school age (%) Number of adolescents of official lower secondary school age who are not enrolled in lower secondary school expressed as a percentage of the population of official lower secondary school age. Education
Rate of out-of-school youth of upper secondary school age (%) Number of youth of official upper secondary school age who are not enrolled in upper secondary school expressed as a percentage of the population of official upper secondary school age. Education
Over-age enrolment ratio in primary education (%) Percentage of the primary school age population that is over the official primary school age. Education
Under-age enrolment ratio in primary education (%) Percentage of the primary school age population that is under the official primary school age. Education
Under-age enrolment ratio in secondary education (%) Percentage of the secondary school age population that is under the official secondary school age. Education
Primary completion rate (%) Total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as percentage of the total population of the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. This indicator is also known as "gross intake rate to the last grade of primary education." The ratio can exceed 100% due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. Education
Lower secondary completion rate (%) Total number of new entrants in the last grade of lower secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as percentage of the total population of the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of lower secondary. This indicator is also known as "Gross intake rate to the last grade of lower secondary general education." The ratio can exceed 100 percent due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter lower secondary school late/early and/or repeat grades. Data limitations preclude adjusting for students who drop out during the final year of lower secondary education. Thus this rate is a proxy that should be taken as an upper estimate of the actual lower secondary completion rate. Education
Survival rate to Grade 5 of primary education (%) Percentage of a cohort of students enrolled in the first grade of primary education in a given school year who are expected to reach grade 5, regardless of repetition. Divide the total number of students belonging to a school-cohort who reached each successive grade of primary education by the number of students in the school-cohort i.e. those originally enrolled in the first grade of primary education, and multiply the result by 100. The survival rate is calculated on the basis of the reconstructed cohort method, which uses data on enrolment and repeaters for two consecutive years. Education
Effective transition rate from primary to lower secondary general education (%) Number of students admitted to the first grade of a higher level of education in a given year, expressed as a percentage of the number of students enrolled in the final grade of the lower level of education in the previous year. Divide the number of new entrants in the first grade of the specified higher cycle or level of education by the number of pupils who were enrolled in the final grade of the preceding cycle or level of education in the previous school year, and multiply by 100. High transition rates indicate a high level of access or transition from one level of education to the next. They also reflect the intake capacity of the next level of education. Inversely, low transition rates can signal problems in the bridging between two cycles or levels of education, due to either deficiencies in the examination system, or inadequate admission capacity in the higher cycle or level of education, or both. This indicator can be distorted by incorrect distinction between new entrants and repeaters, especially in the first grade of the specified higher level of education. Students who interrupted their studies for one or more years after having completed the lower level of education, together with the migrant students, could also affect the quality of this indicator. Education
Percentage of repeaters in a Grade (%) Total number of pupils in the specified grade who are enrolled in the same grade as in a previous year, expressed as a percentage of the total enrollment in the specified grade. It is calculated by dividing the number of pupils repeating a given grade in a given school year by the number of pupils enrolled in the same grade in the same school year and multiplying by 100. The definition of repeaters should be unambiguously applied to include even pupils repeating more than once in the same grade and those who repeat the same grade while transferring from one school to another. Students who were not studying in the same grade in the previous year should be excluded. Education
Repeaters in a specified grade of education (number) Number of pupils in the specified grade who are enrolled in the same grade for a second (or further) year. Education
Repetition rate in a specified grade of education (%) Number of repeaters in a given grade in a given school year, expressed as a percentage of enrolment in that grade the previous school year. Divide the number of repeaters in a given grade in school year t+1 by the number of pupils from the same cohort enrolled in the same grade in the previous school year t. Education
Drop-out rate (%) Proportion of pupils from a cohort enrolled in a given grade at a given school year who are no longer enrolled in the following school year. Dropout rate by grade is calculated by subtracting the sum of promotion rate and repetition rate from 100. Education
Cumulative drop-out rate to the last grade of primary education (%) Proportion of pupils from a cohort enrolled in a given grade at a given school year who are no longer enrolled in the following school year. Cumulative dropout rate in primary education is calculated by subtracting the survival rate from 100 at a given grade. Education
Cumulative drop-out rate to the last grade of lower secondary general education (%) Proportion of pupils from a cohort enrolled in a given grade at a given school year who are no longer enrolled in the following school year. Cumulative dropout rate in lower secondary general education is calculated by subtracting the survival rate from 100 at a given grade. Education
Early school leavers from primary education (number) Total number of students from a cohort enrolled in a given school year who are no longer enrolled in the following school year and did not complete the grade or level of education in which they were enrolled. Education
Pupil-teacher ratio (headcount basis) Average number of pupils per teacher at a given level of education, based on headcounts of both pupils and teachers. Divide the total number of pupils enrolled at the specified level of education by the number of teachers at the same level. In computing and interpreting this indicator, one should take into account the existence of part-time teaching, school-shifts, multi-grade classes and other practices that may affect the precision and meaningfulness of pupil-teacher ratios. When feasible, the number of part-time teachers is converted to ‘full-time equivalent’ teachers; a double-shift teacher is counted twice, etc. Teachers are defined as persons whose professional activity involves the transmitting of knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a formal curriculum programme to students enrolled in a formal educational institution. Education
Pupil/qualified teacher ratio (headcount basis) Average number of pupils per qualified teacher at a given level of education, based on headcounts of both pupils and teachers. Divide the total number of pupils enrolled at the specified level of education by the number of qualified teachers at the same level. A qualified teacher is one who has the minimum academic qualifications necessary to teach at a specific level of education in a given country. This is usually related to the subject(s) they teach. In computing and interpreting this indicator, one should take into account the existence of part-time teaching, school-shifts, multi-grade classes and other practices that may affect the precision and meaningfulness of pupil-teacher ratios. When feasible, the number of part-time teachers is converted to ‘full-time equivalent’ teachers; a double-shift teacher is counted twice, etc. Teachers are defined as persons whose professional activity involves the transmitting of knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a formal curriculum programme to students enrolled in a formal educational institution. Education
Pupil/trained teacher ratio (headcount basis) Average number of pupils per trained teacher at a given level of education, based on headcounts of both pupils and teachers. Divide the total number of pupils enrolled at the specified level of education by the number of trained teachers at the same level. A trained teacher is defined as a teacher who has fulfilled at least the minimum organized teacher-training requirements (pre-service or in-service) to teach a specific level of education according to the relevant national policy or law. These requirements usually include pedagogical knowledge (broad principles and strategies of classroom management and organization that transcend the subject matter being taught - typically approaches, methods and techniques of teaching), and professional knowledge (knowledge of statutory instruments and other legal frameworks that govern the teaching profession). Some programmes may also cover content knowledge (knowledge of the curriculum and the subject matter to be taught and the use of relevant materials). In computing and interpreting this indicator, one should take into account the existence of part-time teaching, school-shifts, multi-grade classes and other practices that may affect the precision and meaningfulness of pupil-teacher ratios. When feasible, the number of part-time teachers is converted to ‘full-time equivalent’ teachers; a double-shift teacher is counted twice, etc. Teachers are defined as persons whose professional activity involves the transmitting of knowledge, attitudes and skills that are stipulated in a formal curriculum programme to students enrolled in a formal educational institution. Education
Duration of compulsory education (years) Number of years that children are legally obliged to attend school. Education
Theoretical duration of pre-primary education (years) Number of grades (years) in pre-primary education. Education
Theoretical duration of primary education (years) Number of grades (years) in primary education. Education
Theoretical duration of lower secondary education (years) Number of grades (years) in lower secondary education. Education
Theoretical duration of secondary education (years) Number of grades (years) in secondary education (ISCED 2 and 3). Education
Theoretical duration of upper secondary education (years) Number of grades (years) in upper secondary education. Education
Theoretical duration of post-secondary non-tertiary education (years) Number of grades (years) in post-secondary education. Education
School life expectancy (years) Number of years a person of school entrance age can expect to spend within the specified level of education. For a child of a certain age a, the school life expectancy is calculated as the sum of the age specific enrolment rates for the levels of education specified. The part of the enrolment that is not distributed by age is divided by the school-age population for the level of education they are enrolled in, and multiplied by the duration of that level of education. The result is then added to the sum of the age-specific enrolment rates. A relatively high SLE indicates greater probability for children to spend more years in education and higher overall retention within the education system. It must be noted that the expected number of years does not necessarily coincide with the expected number of grades of education completed, because of repetition. Since school life expectancy is an average based on participation in different levels of education, the expected number of years of schooling may be pulled down by the magnitude of children who never go to school. Those children who are in school may benefit from many more years of education than the average. Education
UIS: Mean years of schooling of the population age 25+. Total Mean years of schooling (MYS) provides the average number of years of education (primary/ISCED 1 or higher) completed by a country’s adult population (25 years and older), excluding years spent repeating grades. For further information and specific calculation methods, visit the UNESCO Institute for Statistics website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, fourth quintile (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. Each poverty quintile represents one fifth of students with quintile 1 being the poorest 20 percent of students and quintile 5 being the richest 20 percent of students. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, middle quintile (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. Each poverty quintile represents one fifth of students with quintile 1 being the poorest 20 percent of students and quintile 5 being the richest 20 percent of students. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, poorest quintile (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. Each poverty quintile represents one fifth of students with quintile 1 being the poorest 20 percent of students and quintile 5 being the richest 20 percent of students. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, richest quintile (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. Each poverty quintile represents one fifth of students with quintile 1 being the poorest 20 percent of students and quintile 5 being the richest 20 percent of students. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, rural (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, second quintile (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. Each poverty quintile represents one fifth of students with quintile 1 being the poorest 20 percent of students and quintile 5 being the richest 20 percent of students. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Adjusted net attendance rate, primary, urban (%) Total number of students of the official primary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Adjusted net enrolment rate, primary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Net attendance rate, lower secondary (%) Total number of students in the theoretical age group for lower secondary education attending that level, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Net Enrolment Rate" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
UIS: Total net attendance rate, lower secondary (%) Total number of students of the official lower secondary school age group who attended primary or secondary education at any time during the reference academic year, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding population. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) calculates household survey-based education indicators using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). School participation in household surveys and censuses is commonly measured by whether pupils or students attended a given grade or level of education at least one day during the academic reference year. Therefore, indicators of school participation derived from household survey data refer to attendance, e.g. “net attendance rate” or “adjusted net attendance rate”. The comparable indicator for administrative data is "Total net enrolment rate, lower secondary" because the data is based on numbers of students officially enrolled in educational institutions in the stated year. For more information, consult the UIS website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/ Education
Gender parity index (GPI) Ratio of the value of an indicator for female to the value of same indicator for male. It is calculated by dividing the female value for the indicator by the male value for the indicator. A GPI equal to 1 indicates parity between females and males. In general, a value less than 1 indicates disparity in favor of males and a value greater than 1 indicates disparity in favor of females. Education
Inbound mobility rate (%) Number of students from abroad studying in a given country, as a percentage of the total tertiary enrollment in that country. Education
Outbound mobility ratio, all regions (%) Number of students from a given country studying abroad as a percentage of the total tertiary enrolment in that country. Education
Gross outbound enrolment ratio, all regions (%) Total number of mobile tertiary students coming from a country/region as a percentage of the population of tertiary student age in their home country. Education
Total inbound internationally mobile students (number) Total number of students who have crossed a national or territorial border for the purpose of education and are now enrolled in tertiary institutions outside their country of origin. Education
Total outbound internationally mobile tertiary students studying abroad, all countries (number) Students who have crossed a national or territorial border for the purpose of education and are now enrolled outside their country of origin. Education
Urban Constituents of urban area are Statutory Towns, Census Towns and Outgrowths. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Statutory Towns All places with a municipality, corporation, Cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc. so declared by a state law. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Census Towns Places which satisfy the following criteria: - a minimum population of 5000; at least 75 percent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and a density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Out growth Outgrowth should be viable unit such as village or part of a village contiguous to a statutory town and possess the urban features in terms of infrastructure and amenities such as pucca roads, electricity, taps, drainage system, education institutions, post offices, medical facilities, banks, etc. Example: University Campuses, Railway Colony, Port Area etc., that they may come up near a city or statutory towns outside its statutory limits but within the revenue limit of a village or villages contiguous to the town or city. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Urban Agglomeration It is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths or two or more physically contiguous towns together and any adjoining urban outgrowths of such towns. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Slum Slum is a residential area characterized by lack of durable housing, insufficient living area, lack of access to clean water, inadequate sanitation and insecure tenure. For above all reasons, it is considered to be unfit for human habitation. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Notified Slums All notified areas in a town or city notified as ‘Slum’ by State, Union territories Administration or Local Government under any Act including a ‘Slum Act’ may be considered as Notified slums. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Recognized Slums All areas recognized as ‘slum’ by State, Union Territories Administration or Local Government, Housing and Slum Boards, which may have not have been formally notified as slum under any act may be considered as Recognized Slums. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Identified Slums A compact area of at least 300 population or about 60-70 households of poorly built congested tenements, in unhygienic environment usually with inadequate infrastructure and lacking in proper sanitary and drinking water facilities. Such areas should be identified personally by the Charge Officer and also inspected by an officer nominated by Directorate of Census Operations. This fact must be duly recorded in the charge register. Such areas may be considered as Identified Slums. Census 2011 Urban Dev
Urban Local Bodies Local bodies are institutions of the local self-governance, which look after the administration of an area or small community such as villages, towns, or cities. The Local bodies in India are broadly classified into two categories. The local bodies constituted for local planning, development and administration in the rural areas are referred as Rural Local Bodies (Panchayats) and the local bodies, which are constituted for local planning, development and administration in the urban areas are referred as Urban Local Bodies (Municipalities). Ministry of statistics and Program Implementation (MOSPI) Urban Dev
Municipality An institution of self-government constituted under article 243 Q of the Constitution of India Part IX – A, Constitution of India, Ministry of Law & Justice, Govt. of India Urban Dev
Smart City A City that provides core (Public & Private) infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions. Smart City Mission, Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India Urban Dev
Sustainable Development Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Our Common Future, United Nations Urban Dev
Pedestrianization Pedestrianization is defined as the creation or conversion of different public spaces exclusively for pedestrian use. These are the zones in town or city reserved for pedestrians only. In such zones, all the vehicles are prohibited and are instituted by communities who feel that it is desirable to have pedestrian only areas. Converting a street or an area to pedestrian only use is called as pedestrianization. DULT, Karnataka Urban Dev
Aquifer An underground formation of permeable material containing water. Water
Ayacut The area served by an irrigation project such as a canal, dam or a tank. Water
Culturable Command Area (CCA) The area which can be irrigated from a scheme and is fit for cultivation. Water
Delivery Points (water) Public Taps / standposts. These are the water outlets which are provided by a Piped water supply system. Water
Drip/Trickle Irrigation It comprises the application of water in drops close to the plant. The entire space between the plants is not watered. Water
Drinking water near the premises The drinking water source available will be considered 'Near the premises', only if the available source is within a range of 100 metres from the premises in Urban areas and within a distance of 500 metres in the case of Rural areas. Water
Drinking water away from premises If the available drinking water source for the household living in urban area is 100 metres or more from the premises, the source is considered away from the premises. For the households living in rural areas, the drinking water source will be considered 'Away’ if it is located at a distance of 500 metres or more from the premises. Water
FC (Fully covered habitation; water) Those habitations, in which the average supply of drinking water is equal to or more than 55 LPCD, are called “fully covered” habitations. Water
Gross Irrigated Area The gross irrigated area is the total irrigated area under various crops during the whole agricultural year, counting the area irrigated under more than one crop during the same year as many times as the number of crops grown. Inter-cultured or mixed crops are treated as one crop. Water
Habitation It is a term used to define a group of families living in proximity to each other, within a village. It could have either heterogeneous or homogenous demographic pattern. There can be more than one habitation in a village but not vice versa. Water
Irrigation Potential Created The irrigation potential created by a project at a given time during or after its construction is the aggregate gross area that can be irrigated annually by the quantity of water that could be made available by all connected and completed works upto the end of the water courses or the last point in the water delivery system upto which the Government is responsible for construction. Water
Irrigation Potential Utilised The gross area actually irrigated during reference year out of the gross proposed area to be irrigated by the scheme during the year. Water
LPCD Litres per capita daily (water) Water
Net Irrigated Area The net irrigated area is the area irrigated during the year counting the area only once, even if two or more crops are irrigated in different seasons on the same piece of land. Water
NC (Not covered habitation; water) Not Covered. Those habitations, in which the average supply of drinking water is less than 10 LPCD, are called “Not covered” habitations. Water
Norms of coverage of habitaions under NRDWP 55 LPCD is the minimum or lifeline supply that has to be provided to a habitation for considering it as “Fully Covered” under the NRDWP. Water
Non-Revenue Water (NRW) or Unaccounted for Water (UFW) It is the difference between the volume of water put into a water distribution system and the volume that is billed to customers. In other words, it is the water that has been produced and is “lost” before it reaches the customer. NRW or UFW comprises three components as follows: 1)Physical (or real) losses comprise leakage from all parts of the system and overflows at the utility’s reservoirs. They are caused by poor operations and maintenance, the lack of active leakage control, and poor quality of underground assets; 2)Commercial (or apparent) losses are caused by customer meter under registration, data handling errors, and theft of water in various forms; 3)Unbilled authorized consumption includes water used by the utility for operational purposes, water used for firefighting, and water provided for free to certain consumer groups. Water
NRDWP National Rural Drinking Water Programme. This programme was launched in April 2009 by the then Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation presently Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, for assisting states in providing drinking water to the rural population of India. This programme has incorporated paradigmatic changes in its previous version called the Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme, by emphasizing on water supply systems which are planned and managed by the community at the village level, for ensuring sustainable drinking water availability, convenient delivery systems and achieving water security at the household level. Water
NSS No Safe Source - Habitation having a water source but is affected with quality problems such as excess salinity, iron, fluoride, arsenic or other toxic elements or biologically contaminated is considered a No Safe Source habitation. Hence, in case of quality affected habitations, even if they are fully covered as per the earlier norms they would be considered as NSS habitations if they do not have safe water supply at least for the purpose of drinking and cooking.  Water
O & M Operation and Maintenance. Water
PC (Partially covered; water) Those habitations in which the average supply of drinking water is less than 55 LPCD and equal to or more than 10 LPCD, are called “partially covered” habitations. Water
PWS Piped Water Supply systems. Such water supply systems provide water to various points away from the source of water through a pumping or gravity system and connections through pipelines. Water
QA Habitation Quality Affected Habitations – These are the habitations where water samples tested in laboratories have indicated levels of chemical contamination (limited to Arsenic, Fluoride, Iron, Nitrate and Salinity) higher than the permissible limits set by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Special focus is laid on monitoring of coverage status of such habitations under NRDWP. Water
Sanitary Survey Effective drinking water quality control involves two equally important activities: sanitary survey of drinking water sources and sampling and analysis of water. A sanitary survey is carried out by a team of trained experts including a surveillance co-ordinator, panchayat pradhan and community representative. The survey questionnaire consists of a set of question related to the maintenance of the area around a source of water like the platform around a handpump, drainage channel, fencing around the installation, etc. and the presence of any source of pollution nearby, like stagnant water, pit latrine, dumping of animal excreta etc. Based on the answers the risk factor is calculated and the necessary remedial measures taken. Water
Slipped back habitation A habitation having status “Fully Covered” at one point of time but which is “Partially Covered” or “Quality Affected” presently, is called a Slipped back habitation. Water
Spot Sources Those water supply systems where the source of water and the supply/delivery system are both at the same point location, are called spot sources. Eg: Hand humps, wells, ponds etc. Water
Sprinkler Irrigation The method of applying water over the land by spraying it under pressure. This is often done by rotating sprinkler heads with one or more nozzles or by using perforated pipes. Water
Tap water from treated source Tap Water from treated source refers to a source of drinking water which is provided to individual households through pipes within the premises or to a group of households through common taps (public taps / community water points) by the Govt. departments, local bodies, panchayats, public or private estate agencies, etc. after treatment. Water
Tap water from untreated source If a household is drawing drinking water through pipes either directly from a well or bore well or after pumping the well or tube well water to an overhead water tank, or the water is supplied through pipes to individual household within the premises or to a group of households through common taps by Residents Welfare Association or any other agency without treatment, such a source should be treated as Tap water from untreated source. Water
UC (Uncovered habitation; water) Such habitations are those which have never been provided with drinking water supply by the government, under the NRDWP (or former Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme). Water
VWSC Village Water and Sanitation Committees. Water
Water Productivity Water Productivity is expressed as a ratio of output to input. Therefore, Water Productivity is a measure of output of a given system in relation to the water it consumes. Water
Water Use Efficiency Water Use Efficiency (WUE) refers to the amount of water spent or consumed per unit of water delivered. It thus implies performance of the water from the point water is delivered for a specific use till it is consumed. An efficient water system implies effective transfer of water from the source to the field with minimum possible loss. Water
WQMS Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance. Under the National Rural Drinking Water Programme the issue of Water Quality Monitoring & Surveillance has been given due emphasis. The monitoring and surveillance results from the habitations are also to be put on the database of the Department and monitored to ensure drinking water security at the household level. Water
Gross Value Added or Gross (District/Mandal) Domestic Product (GDP) “Gross domestic product (GDP) is the standard measure of the value of the goods and services produced by a country [or district/mandal] during a period.” OECD Factbook 2008 Public Finance
Gross Fixed Capital Formation “Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) reflects the acquisition, less disposal, of fixed assets, i.e. products which are expected to be used in production for several years. Acquisitions include both purchases of assets (new or second-hand) and the construction of assets by producers for their own use. Disposals include sales of assets for scrap as well as sales of used assets in a working condition to other producers” OECD Factbook 2008 Public Finance
Gross National Income (GNI) “GNI is defined as GDP plus net receipts from abroad of wages and salaries and of property income” OECD Factbook 2008 Public Finance
Inflation “Inflation measures how much more expensive a set of goods and services has become over a certain period, usually a year. It is the rate of increase in prices over a given period of time” OECD Factbook 2008 Public Finance
Fiscal Deficit “The net lending of the general government is equal to the difference between total revenue and total expenditure. A negative figure indicates a deficit.” OECD Factbook 2011-12 Public Finance
Fiscal Deficit as a % of GSDP (contd. Fiscal Deficit) “…It is an important indicator for assessing fiscal performance and more generally imbalances in the economy” OECD Factbook 2011-12 Public Finance
Revenue Deficit “The main revenue of general government consists of taxes, social contributions, dividends and other property income. The main expenditure items consist of the compensation of civil servants, social benefits, interest on the public debt, subsidies and gross fixed capital formation. A negative figure indicates excess of expenditure over income and is a deficit.” OECD Factbook 2011-12 Public Finance
Primary deficit “The primary balance that is the balance before interest payments signals the capacity of governments to honour debt without the need for further indebtedness. A negative figure indicates a deficit.” [Simply, the primary deficit is defined as the difference between current government spending on goods and services and total current revenue from all types of taxes net of transfer payments. It is simply the fiscal deficit minus interest payments.] OECD Factbook 2011-15 Public Finance
Tax : GSDP “Total tax revenue as a percentage of GDP indicates the share of a country’s output that is collected by the government through taxes. It can thus be regarded as one measure of the degree to which the government controls the economy’s resources. OECD Factbook 2008 Public Finance
Debt : GSDP Gross financial liabilities as a percentage of GDP is the most commonly used government debt ratio. OECD Factbook 2008 Public Finance
Own Revenue / Revenue Expenditure Indicates the states’ ability to finance its expenditures through collecting its own tax revenues. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Development expenditure / Aggregate disbursement Indicates amount of productive expenditure designed to directly promote economic growth and social development as a proportion of the total amount spent by the state. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Non Development expenditure / Aggregate disbursement Indicates the amount of unproductive (or non-development) expenditure as a proportion of the total amount spent by the state. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Interest payment / Revenue expenditure Indicates amount spent on interest payments as a proportion of total revenue expenditures of the state. A lower value indicates the state has the fiscal space to spend on priority areas. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Interest payment / Revenue receipts Indicates amount spent on interest payments out of the state’s revenue receipts. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Committed expenditure / Revenue expenditure Indicates the amount spent on interest payments, salaries and wages, pensions and subsidies out of total revenue spend of the state. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Pension / Revenue expenditure Indicates the amount spent on pensions alone, out of total revenue spend of the state. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Capital expenditure / Total expenditure Indicates investment in capital stock by the state with the view to spur economic activity in the state. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
Gross Transfers/Aggregate Disbursements Indicates the amount transferred as developmental funds to be spent on (social) development activities as a proportion of total spending. Fiscal Sector Statistics, Ch. VII from Manual on Financial and Banking Statistics-2007, Reserve Bank of India. See Annexures 8.1-8.3 for detailed explanations. Public Finance
AIDS / HIV prevalence rate The AIDS / HIV prevalence rate in selected populations refers to the percentage of people tested in each group who were found to be infected with HIV. UNAIDS, Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS with Unicef, UNDP, UNFPA, UNDCP, UNESCO, WHO, World Bank. Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Geneva, biennial. AIDS epidemic update. Health
Chronic health conditions Chronic health conditions are those where the onset is usually insidious, with a gradual progression of symptoms or with problems of a more permanent nature resulting as sequels to a series of acute conditions. Daily activities may or may not be restricted during any given period although there is usually a more general series of limitations of activities. Handbook of Household Surveys, Revised Edition, Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 31, United Nations, New York, 1984, para. 14.45. Health
The dependent population ratio The dependent population ratio is the ratio of the population defined as dependent (the population aged 0-19 and 65 and over) divided by the population 20-64, multiplied by 100. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Disability A disability reflects any limitation or lack of ability that a person experiences in performing an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a person, in other words, a limitation in learning, speaking, walking or some other activity (individual dimension). Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses, Revision 1, United Nations, New York, 1998, para. 2.260. Health
Disability-free life expectancy Disability-free life expectancy is the average number of years an individual is expected to live free of disability if current patterns of mortality and disability continue to apply. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
General government (excluding social security) expenditure on health General government (excluding social security) expenditure on health refers to expenditures incurred by central, state/regional and local government authorities, excluding social security schemes. Included are non-market, non-profit institutions that are controlled and mainly financed by government units. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Health The Constitution of the World Health Organisation states in its preamble: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Handbook of Household Surveys, Revised Edition, Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 31, United Nations, New York, 1984, para. 14.40. Health
Fatal occupational injury A Fatal occupational injury is an occupational injury leading to death within one year of the day of the occupational accident. International Labour Organization (ILO) Resolutions Concerning statistics of occupational injuries (resulting from occupational accidents), adopted by the Sixteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians (October 1998), page 5. Health
Immunization Rendering a person or animal immune to certain infections by the process of injecting either antigen or a serum containing specific antibodies. S.W.A. Gunn. Multilingual Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and International Relief, English, Français, Español, Arabic. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990. Health
Immunisation rate for children The immunisation rate for children refers to the percentage of children reaching their first birthday who have been fully immunised against Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis (DTP). OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Injuries in road traffic accidents Injuries in road traffic accidents refers to the number of people injured in road traffic accidents per million population. OECD Health Data 2007: Statistics and Indicators for 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2007, Data sources, definitions and methods. Health
In-patient care In-patient care refers to care for a patient who is formally admitted (or ‘hospitalised’) to an institution for treatment and/or care and stays for a minimum of one night in the hospital or other institution providing in-patient care. In-patient care is delivered in hospitals, other nursing homes and residential care facilities or in establishments which are classified according to their focus of care under the ambulatory care industry but perform in-patient care as a secondary activity. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Low birth weight Low birth weight is the number of live births weighing less than 2500 grams as a percentage of total live births. OECD Health Data 2007: Statistics and Indicators for 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2007, Data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Malaria A parasitic infection characterized by cycles of chills, fever, sweating, anaemia, enlarged spleen and a chronic relapsing course. Four types of parasites affect man, through infection by the anopheles mosquito. Most malarial areas are in the tropics. Disasters, like floods and refugee encampments, are conducive to the propagation of the disease. S.W.A. Gunn. Multilingual Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and International Relief, English, Français, Español, Arabic. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990. (p. 49). Health
Maternal Death The death of woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental causes. World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva, 1992. (definitions 4.4 and 4.5). Health
Measles A highly contagious acute disease of childhood, characterized by a spreading skin rash, fever, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, eruption of the buccal mucosa (Koplik's spots) and prostration. Overcrowding and disaster conditions are conducive to outbreaks, with high mortality, especially among the malnourished. S.W.A. Gunn. Multilingual Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and International Relief, English, Français, Español, Arabic. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990. Health
Obesity Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or more. The BMI is a single number that evaluates an individual's weight status in relation to height (weight/height2), with weight in kilograms and height in metres). OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Occupational accident An Occupational accident is an unexpected and unplanned occurrence, including acts of violence, arising out of or in connection with work which results in one or more workers incurring a personal injury, disease or death. As occupational accidents are to be considered travel, transport or road traffic accidents in which workers are injured and which arise out of or in the course of work, i.e. while engaged in an economic activity, or at work, or carrying on the business of the employer. International Labour Organization (ILO) Resolutions Concerning statistics of occupational injuries (resulting from occupational accidents), adopted by the Sixteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians (October 1998), page 2. Health
Occupational health care Occupational health care comprises a wide variety of health services such as surveillance of employee health (routine medical check-ups) and therapeutic care (including emergency health care services) on or off-business premises (including government and non-profit institutions serving households). This excludes, however, remuneration- in-kind of health services and goods that constitute household actual final consumption rather than intermediate consumption of business. (ICHA function HC.6.9). A System of Health Accounts, OECD, 2000, chapter 9, page 123. Health
Household out-of-pocket expenditure on health Household out-of-pocket expenditure on health comprise cost-sharing, self-medication and other expenditure paid directly by private households, irrespective of whether the contact with the health care system was established on referral or on the patient’s own initiative. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Over-the-counter medicines (OTC medicines) Over-the-counter medicines (OTC medicines) are classified as private households' pharmaceutical expenditure of non-prescription medicines. Note: This item corresponds to HC.5.1.2 in the ICHA-HC functional classification. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Perceived health status Perceived health status refers to the percentage of the population, aged 15 or more years who report their health to be 'good' or better. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Perinatal Mortality The ratio of deaths of children within one week of birth (early neonatal deaths) plus foetal deaths of minimum gestation period 28 weeks or minimum foetal weight of 1000g, expressed per 1,000 births. OECD Health Data 2007: Statistics and Indicators for 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2007, Data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Person with a disability A person with a disability is a person who is limited in the kind or amount of activities that he or she can do because of on-going difficulties due to a long-term physical condition, mental condition or health problem. Short-term disabilities due to temporary conditions such as broken legs and illnesses are excluded. Only disabilities lasting for more than six months should be included. Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses, Revision 1, United Nations, New York, 1998, para. 2.262. Health
Potential years of life lost (PYLL Potential years of life lost (PYLL) is a summary measure of premature mortality which provides an explicit way of weighting deaths occurring at younger ages, which are, a priori, preventable. The calculation for PYLL involve adding up deaths occurring at each age and multiplying this with the number of remaining years to live until a selected age limit. The limit of 70 years has been chosen for the calculations in OECD Health Data. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Prevalence (of illness): The number of illnesses, accidents or sick persons in a given population and time, without distinction between new and old cases. S.W.A. Gunn. Multilingual Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and International Relief, English, Français, Español, Arabic. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990. (p. 61). Health
Private expenditure on prevention and public health Private expenditure on prevention and public health refers to privately funded part of expenditure on prevention and public health. It includes privately funded occupational health care; prevention and public health services provided by charities, other non-Governmental organisations, voluntary organisations. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Public expenditure on health Public expenditure on health refers to expenditure on health care incurred by public funds. Public funds are state, regional and local Government bodies and social security schemes. Public capital formation on health includes publicly-financed investment in health facilities plus capital transfers to the private sector for hospital construction and equipment. Public funds correspond to HF.1 in the ICHA-HF classification of health care financing. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Social health insurance scheme A social health insurance scheme is one where the policy-holder is obliged or encouraged to insure by the intervention of a third party. For example, government may oblige all employees to participate in a social security programme; employers may make it a condition of employment that employees participate in an insurance programme specified by the employer; an employer may encourage employees to join a programme by making contributions on behalf of the employee; or a trade union may arrange advantageous insurance cover available only to the members of the trade union. Contributions to social insurance programmes are usually paid on behalf of employees, though under certain conditions non-employed or self-employed persons may also be covered. OECD Health Data 2001: A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2001, data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Total Health Employment Number of persons (head counts) and number of full-time equivalent (FTE) persons, employed (including self-employed) in health services, including 'contracted out' staff and excluding pharmaceutical and medical equipment manufacturing employees. OECD Health Data 2007: Statistics and Indicators for 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2007, Data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Tuberculosis Infections and contagious disease, with particular localization in the lungs, caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. BCG vaccination is important, but the disease is still endemic in many regions and is a real hazard in crowded unsanitary conditions following disaster. One of the six diseases in the WHO immunization programme. S.W.A. Gunn. Multilingual Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and International Relief, English, Français, Español, Arabic. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990. (p. 82). Health
Infant mortality rate (IMR) The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths under one year of age occurring among the live births in a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 live births occurring among the population of the given geographical area during the same year. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Causes of death Causes of death refers to all diseases, morbid conditions or injuries that either resulted in or contributed to death, and the circumstances of the accident or violence that produced any such injuries. Symptoms or modes of dying, such as heart failure or asthenia, are not considered to be causes of death for statistical purposes. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Crude death rate The crude death rate is the number of deaths occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Civil Register A civil register is an official loose-leaf file or a ledger book for each type of vital event where vital events and changes in the civil status occurring to the population in a well-defined area (e.g. a county, district, municipality, parish and so on) are legally registered, following established procedures. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Civil registration system The civil registration system refers to governmental machinery set up in the country, state, province or any other territorial subdivision of the country for the purpose of legal recording of vital events related to the civil status of the population on a continuous basis, as provided by the laws and regulations of the country, state, province, etc. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Cohort A cohort is a group of persons who experience a certain event in a specified period of time. For example, the birth cohort of 1985 would be the people born in that year. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Crude birth rate The crude birth rate is the number of live births occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Early foetal death An early foetal death is the death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception of less than 20 completed weeks of gestation. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Economically active population Economically active population comprises all persons of either sex who furnish the supply of labour for the production of economic goods and services as defined by the United Nations System of National Accounts during a specified time-reference period. International Labour Organization (ILO) Resolutions Concerning Economically Active Population, Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment Adopted by the 13th International Conference of Labour Statisticians, October 1982, para. 5. Health
Total Fertitility Rate (TFR) to the number of children that would be born per woman, assuming no female mortality at child bearing ages and the age-specific fertility rates of a specified country and reference period. United Nations, 1958, Multilingual Demographic Dictionary, English Section. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Studies, No. 29, United Nations, New York, para . 634. Health
Life expectancy Life expectancy at birth and ages 40, 60, 65 and 80 is the average number of years that a person at that age can be expected to live, assuming that age-specific mortality levels remain constant. OECD Health Data 2007: Statistics and Indicators for 30 Countries, OECD, Paris, 2007, Data sources, definitions and methods. Health
Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) The maternal mortality rate refers to the number of deaths from puerperal causes occurring among the female population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 100, 000 live births occurring among the population of the given geographical area during the same year. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Neo-Natal Mortality Rate The neo-natal mortality rate is the number of deaths during the first 28 completed days of life occurring among the live births in a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 live births. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Death Death is the permanent disappearance of all evidence of life at any time after live birth has taken place (post natal cessation of vital functions without capability of resuscitation). This definition therefore excludes foetal death. Handbook of Vital Statistics Systems and Methods, Volume 1: Legal, Organisational and Technical Aspects, United Nations Studies in Methods, Glossary, Series F, No. 35, United Nations, New York 1991. Health
Acronym Expansion Sector
AMRUT Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation Urban Development
ANM Auxiliary Nurse Midwifery Health
APCRDA Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority Urban Development
APDISCOM Andhra Pradesh Distribution Company Infrastructure & Energy
APEDB Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board Urban Development
APEPDCL Andhra Pradesh Eastern Power Distribution Company limited Infrastructure & Energy
APERC Andhra Pradesh Electricity Regulatory Commission Urban Development
APGENCO Andhra Pradesh Generation Company Infrastructure & Energy
APHB Andhra Pradesh Housing Board Urban Development
APIIC Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation Urban Development
APPCB Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board Urban Development
APSHC Andhra Pradesh State Housing Corporation Limited Urban Development
APSPDCL Andhra Pradesh Southern Power Distribution Company limited Infrastructure & Energy
APSRTC Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation Urban Development
APTRANSCO Andhra Pradesh Transmission Company Infrastructure & Energy
APUFIDC AP Urban Finance and Infrastructure Development Corporation Urban Development
ASER Annual Status of Education Report Education
ASHA Accredited Social Health Activist Health
AT&C LOSS Aggregate technical and commercial loss Infrastructure & Energy
BCM Billion Cubic Meters Water
BERD Business Expenditure on Research and Development Emerging Technologies
CAA Constitutional Amendment Act Urban Development
CADA Command Area Development Authority Water
CAGR Compound Annual Growth Rate Public Finance
CBIC Chennai – Bangalore Industrial Corridor Industries and MSMEs
CBR Crude Birth Rate Health
CCA Culturable Command Area Water
CDMA Commissioner and Director of Municipal Administration Urban Development
CETP Common Effluent Treatment Plant Water
CGD City Gas Distribution Infrastructure & Energy
CPHEEO Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation Urban Development
Cusecs Cubic Feet per second Water
CWC Central Water Commission Water
DIET District Institutes of Education and Training Education
DISE District Information System for Education Education
DLHS District Level Household and Facility Survey Health
DPR Detailed Project Report Urban Development
DTCP Directorate of Town and Country Planning Urban Development
ECCE Early Childhood Care and Education Education
EGDI E Government Development Index Governance
EM Entrepreneur Memorandum Industries and MSMEs
EoDB Ease of doing business Industries and MSMEs
EPI E Participation Index Governance
e-Pragathi AP State Enterprise Architecture Governance
EWS Economically Weaker Section Urban Development
FC Fully Covered Habitations Water
FRBM Fiscal Responsibility & Budget Management Act Public Finance
FSRU Floating Storage & Regasification Unit Infrastructure & Energy
FY Financial Year Infrastructure & Energy
GER Gross Enrolment Ratio Education
GERD Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development Emerging Technologies
GoAP Government of Andhra Pradesh Water
GSDP Gross State Domestic Product Public Finance
GVA Gross Value Added Public Finance
GVMC Greater Vishakhapatnam Municipal Corporation Urban Development
GW Groundwater Water
Ha Hectares Water
HALE Health Adjusted Life Expectancy Health
HDI Human Development Index Health
HERD Hiher Education Expenditure on Research and Development Emerging Technologies
HIG Higher Income Group Urban Development
IC Industrial Corridor Industries and MSMEs
ICDS Integrated Child Development Scheme Education
ICTs Information and Communication Technologies Emerging Technologies
IMR Infant Mortality Rate Health
IOT Internet of Things Governance
JAM Jan Dhan Mobile Governance
JNNURM Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission Urban Development
KPI Key Performance Index Infrastructure & Energy
KWDT Krishna Water Dispute Tribunal Water
LABS Vision 2029 Transformation Labs on Education, Retail, Governance and Urban Development Governance
LIG Lower Income Group Urban Development
LPCD Litres per capita per day Water
MAUD Municipal Administration and Urban Development, GoAP Urban Development
MC Municipal Corporation Urban Development
MCM Million Cubic Meters Water
MIG Middle Income Group Urban Development
MIS Management Information System Water
MLD Million Litres per Day Water
MMR Maternal Mortality Ratio Health
MOOCs Massive Open Online Courses Emerging Technologies
MoUD Ministry of Urban Development, GoI Urban Development
MSME MSME- Micro, Small and Medium enterprises Industries and MSMEs
MSW Municipal Solid Waste Urban Development
MU Million Units Infrastructure & Energy
MVS Multi- Village Supply Water
MW Mega Watt Infrastructure & Energy
NAAC National Assessment and Accreditation Council Education
NCERT National Council for Education Research and Training Education
NER Net Enrolment Ratio Education
NHM National Health Mission Health
NI National Income Public Finance
NIC National Industry Classification Industries and MSMEs
NIMZ National Investment Manufacturing Zone Industries and MSMEs
NRDWP National Rural Drinking Water Program Water
NREDCAP New and Renewable Energy Development Corporation of Andhra Pradesh Infrastructure & Energy
NRW Non-Revenue Water Water
NSDP Net State Domestic Product Public Finance
O & M Operation & Maintenance Water
PC Partially Covered Habitations Water
PCI Per Capita Income Public Finance
PCPIR Petroleum, Chemicals, and Petrochemicals Investment Region Urban Development
PDS Public Distribution System Governance
PEMANDU Performance Management and Delivery Unit , Malaysia
PFA Power For All Infrastructure & Energy
PHC Primary Healthcare Centre Health
PHMED/PHED Public Health and Municipal Engineering Department Water
PPA Power Purchase Agreement Infrastructure & Energy
Ppm Parts per Million Water
PPP Public Private Partnership Infrastructure & Energy
PSD Public Service Delivery Governance
QA Quality Affected Water
RCAP Rapid Capacity Addition Program Infrastructure & Energy
RMSA Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan Education
RO Reverse Osmosis Water
RTA Road Transport Authority Urban Development
RWS Rural Water Supply Department Water
SAC Swachha Andhra Corporation Urban Development
SCERT State Council for Education Research and Training Education
SDGs Sustainable Development Goals Governance
SEB State Electricity Board Infrastructure & Energy
SERP Smart Energy Reforms Program Infrastructure & Energy
SEZ Special Economic Zone Industries and MSMEs
SIR Special Investment Region Industries and MSMEs
SLA Service Level Agreement Urban Development
SLNA State Level Nodal Agency Urban Development
SMAC Social Media, Mobile. Analytics & Cloud Governance
SPV Special Purpose Vehicle Industries and MSMEs
SRS Sample Registration System Health
STEM Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Emerging Technologies
STP Sewage Treatment Plant Urban Development
SVS Single Village Supply Water
SWM Solid Waste Management Urban Development
T&D Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure & Energy
TFR Total Fertility Rate Health
TMC Thousand Million Cubic Feet Water
TPD Tonnes per Day Urban Development
TUDA Tirupati Urban Development Authority Urban Development
UA Urban Authority Urban Development
UDA Urban Development Authority Urban Development
UFW Unaccounted for Water Water
ULB Urban Local Body Urban Development
UNDP United nations Development Programme Health
VCIC Vizag-Chennai Industrial Corridor Industries and MSMEs
WALAMTARI Water and Land Management Training and Research Institute Water
WHO World Health Organisation Health
WP Water Productivity Water
WtE Waste-to-Energy Urban Development
WTP Water Treatment Plant Water
WUAs Water Users Associations Water
WUE Water Use Efficiency Water